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Very often does this happen, but rarely so effectively. American History X is no doubt the most successful attempt in cinema to counter racism, condemn neo-Nazism and bring forward themes of equality and justice. However, while offering this valuable American History lesson on screen, a number of racist crimes are committed, a series of racist remarks are made and plenty of disturbing narrow-mindedness becomes evident. In other words, it takes a highly racist film to make a point against racism.

Written by David McKenna (Blow) and directed by Tony Kaye (Detachment), American History X was released in 1998 and tells the story of two white brothers, Derek Vinyard (Edward Norton) and Danny Vinyard (Edward Furlong) who shared, at different times in their lives, the same racist ideology and fanaticism. After their father’s murder by a black drug dealer, Derek joined the neo-Nazi movement of Venice Beach in Los Angeles and quickly rose up to occupy a prominent place in the Californian racist circles. However, during his chief-racist time, Derek brutally murdered two black men who attempted to steal his car, and with this he was sent to prison for three years. When in jail, he received just as brutal of a treatment from his fellow white inmates, which caused him to gradually change his beliefs and finally recognize interracial hatred as meaningless baggage and a waste of time… Now that he is set free again, he finds his younger brother all skin-headed, immigrant-hating and an avid supporter of the former cause, which awakens Derek even further and forces him to realise the hidden-up-until-now and extremely dangerous consequences of his very wrong actions.

Both brothers and especially Derek, are extremely intelligent, strong and charismatic. They do well at school, they have friends, girlfriends, good looks and adamant beliefs. And although these beliefs are ultimately shaken, still most of the damage is done. Even though neo-Nazism and everything that it entails in the end betrays them, the fact remains that time has been lost, a big part of their youth has been wasted, passion has been invested in all the wrong things and lives have been thrown away for no good reason. Hatred of the past has been recycled over and over again, murder has given way to revenge and revenge to more killing.

All this makes the main character of the story the protagonist as well as the antagonist. Derek is the villain as much as he is the hero and the audience hates him as much as they cheer for him. The viewers are constantly stuck somewhere in the middle of it all, as they crave justice and want to see bad guy Derek getting punished for his actions, but at the same time they are the ones who want to see remorseful Derek being forgiven for his crimes, that were merely revenge for the murder of his father and self-defence against criminals who were trying to take away from him the only thing that his father had left him…

In other words, half the time we’re cheering for a racist.

And we keep falling in that beautifully and resourcefully set up trap. What’s more, the highly compelling actor portraying this racist earns an Academy Award for Best Actor for succeeding in having us torn and undecided for two hours of whether we love him or hate him. Edward Norton offers one of the most memorable performances in cinema history when he becomes a brutal neo-Nazi, kills every ‘non-white’ that comes his way and gives us scene after scene of nightmare material, trying to bring forward an important message: that if a sick fanatic like him can change and let go of old hatred, then everybody can. And everybody should.

Basically, he’s going too far, but only to make a statement. It is interesting to note that the film has to show everything from a white perspective, and more importantly, from the point of view of a young man who has been wronged, if it wants to succeed in teaching us the wrong doings of racism. Derek has turned racist because he has been harmed by people of other races in some way. Which justifies him in a very obscure way, for some part of the film at least. The time comes when he takes it too far, but up until then, we kind of like him. After he loses it, we hate him. And then we sympathise with him again.

However, racial hatred and violence never leave the front row and racist remarks made by tattooed skinheads never cease. Horrible crimes fueled by extreme ideologies are repeatedly committed in order for us to get the hint that hatred brings hatred and violence causes violence… Racism leads to more racism and if some of us haven’t fully understood this after American History X, then this definitely isn’t due to the filmmakers’ lack of trying… Indeed the most racist film in the world does manage to effectively show its audience the negative effects of racism and definitely makes its point clear. But yes, it takes that much racism for an anti-Nazi message to become evident.

Read also:

American History X at IMDb
American History X at Rotten Tomatoes
American History X at Wikipedia
American History X (awards won and nominated for) at IMDb

American History X is a 1998 American crimedrama film directed by Tony Kaye and written by David McKenna. It stars Edward Norton and Edward Furlong, and features Fairuza Balk, Stacy Keach, Elliott Gould, Avery Brooks, Ethan Suplee, and Beverly D'Angelo. The film was released in the United States on October 30, 1998 and was distributed by New Line Cinema.

The film tells the story of two brothers from Venice, Los Angeles who become involved in the neo-Nazi movement. The older brother serves three years in prison for voluntary manslaughter, changes his beliefs and tries to prevent his brother from going down the same path. The film is told in the style of nonlinear narrative. Made on a budget of $20 million, the film grossed $24 million at the worldwide box office.

Critics mostly praised the film and Norton's performance, which earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. In September 2008, Empire magazine named it the 311th Greatest Movie of All Time.[2]


High school student Danny Vinyard receives an assignment from his history teacher Mr. Murray to write a paper on "any book which relates to the struggle for human rights." Knowing Murray is Jewish, Danny writes his paper on Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf. Murray attempts to get Danny expelled for doing this, but African-American Principal Dr. Bob Sweeney refuses, instead informing Danny that he will study history and current events under Sweeney, and that the class will be called "American History X." Danny's first assignment is to prepare a paper on his brother Derek, a former neo-Nazi leader.

A few years earlier, Danny and Derek's father Dennis Vinyard was murdered by black drug dealers after being sent on a call to fight a fire in a drug den. In a television interview conducted after Dennis's death, Derek erupts in a long racist tirade. Shortly thereafter, Cameron Alexander and Derek form a white supremacist gang called the Disciples of Christ (D.O.C.). As a skilled basketball player, Derek is reluctantly dragged into a 3-on-3 game against several members of the Crips in which the prize is control of the recreation center basketball courts. After winning with his friends, Derek leads a large gang of skinheads to attack a supermarket owned by a Korean that included African-American and Latino workers. Derek's mother Doris invites Murray, whom she is dating, home for dinner, which turns into a full-blown argument between Derek and Murray, causing them to leave. That night, as Danny hears people attempting to steal Dennis' truck, Derek shoots and kills one of the thieves and curb stomps another, before being arrested. He is sentenced to three years in prison for voluntary manslaughter.

Derek is given a job in the prison laundry and assigned to be the partner of Lamont, a black man who is serving six years for assaulting a police officer. The pair later develop a rapport over their shared love of basketball. Derek joins the Aryan Brotherhood, but after about a year, he becomes disillusioned because some members have ties to other prison gangs who are of different ethnicities. As punishment, he is beaten and sodomized in the shower by the Aryan Brotherhood members; Derek recovers and is visited by Sweeney, whom he asks for help to be paroled. Sweeney informs him of Danny's involvement with neo-Nazis, and warns that he is on the same path as Derek. Derek further distances himself from the Aryan Brotherhood and spends the remainder of his time in prison alone, reading books that Sweeney sends him. Finally realizing the error of his ways, Derek leaves prison a changed man. Upon arriving home, he finds that Danny has a D.O.C. tattoo and tries to persuade him to leave the gang. They subsequently go to a neo-Nazi party, where Derek tells Cameron that he and Danny will no longer associate with the movement; this causes Cameron, Derek's girlfriend, and all the other neo-Nazis to turn on him. After leaving the party, Derek tells Danny about his experience in prison, which seems to prompt a change in Danny.

The next morning, Danny finishes his paper, which reflects on why he had adopted Nazi values and why they were deeply flawed. Derek walks Danny to school, and on their way they stop at a diner. Sweeney and a police officer tell Derek that his friend Seth and Cameron were attacked the previous night. At school, Danny is ambushed and killed in the bathroom by a young black student named Little Henry. Derek arrives at the school and mourns for Danny.



Shooting took place in Los Angeles, California.[3] With some suggestions from New Line, director Tony Kaye made a second heavily shortened cut, which New Line rejected as it bore little resemblance to the first. Film editor Jerry Greenberg was brought in to cut a third version with Edward Norton.

Kaye disowned the third version as the final cut of the film, as he did not approve of its quality.[4] He tried and failed to have his name removed from the credits,[5][6] openly telling some interviewers he tried to invoke the Alan Smithee pseudonym which the Directors Guild of America used to reserve for such cases. When his request was denied, Kaye tried "Humpty Dumpty" as an alternative name.

Joaquin Phoenix was offered the role of Derek Vinyard but turned it down.[7]


All music composed by Anne Dudley.

1."American History X"4:46
2."The Assignment"2:36
3."Venice Beach"1:28
4."Playing to Win"3:49
5."People Look at Me and See My Brother"1:41
6."If I Had Testified"4:05
7."A Stranger at My Table"3:31
8."Putting Up a Flag"2:06
11."Starting to Remind Me of You"1:43
12."The Right Questions"3:24
13."The Path to Redemption"2:56
14."We Are Not Enemies"2:05
15."Two Brothers"2:31
16."Storm Clouds Gathering"2:04

Release and reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

American History X was released on October 30, 1998 and grossed $156,076 in seventeen theaters during its opening weekend. The film went on to gross $6,719,864 from 513 theaters in the United States, and a total of $23,875,127 worldwide.[1]

Critical response[edit]

The film received positive reviews upon release with many critics directing particular praise towards Edward Norton's performance. Based on the reviews of 82 critics collected on Rotten Tomatoes, 83% of critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 7.3/10; the website's consensus reads: "A compelling and provocative story led by an excellent performance by Edward Norton."[8] By comparison, on Metacritic, the film holds a 62/100 average rating based on 32 reviews of top mainstream critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[9]

Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune, awarding American History X four stars out of four, described it as "a shockingly powerful screed against racism that also manages to be so well performed and directed that it is entertaining as well" and stated that it was "also effective at demonstrating how hate is taught from one generation to another." Siskel singled out Norton's performance and called him "the immediate front-runner" for an Oscar.[10]Todd McCarthy, writing for Variety, gave the film a positive review stating, "This jolting, superbly acted film will draw serious-minded upscale viewers interested in cutting-edge fare." He gave special praise to Norton's performance, saying "His Derek mesmerizes even as he repels, and the actor fully exposes the human being behind the tough poses and attitudinizing."[11]The New York Times's Janet Maslin wrote, "Though its story elements are all too easily reduced to a simple outline, American History X has enough fiery acting and provocative bombast to make its impact felt. For one thing, its willingness to take on ugly political realities gives it a substantial raison d'être. For another, it has been directed with a mixture of handsome photo-realism and visceral punch."[12]Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three stars out of four, stating that it was "always interesting and sometimes compelling, and it contains more actual provocative thought than any American film on race since Do the Right Thing." He was critical though of the film's underdeveloped areas, stating that "the movie never convincingly charts Derek's path to race hatred" and noting that "in trying to resolve the events of four years in one day, it leaves its shortcuts showing". Nevertheless, Ebert concluded, "This is a good and powerful film. If I am dissatisfied, it is because it contains the promise of being more than it is."[13]

Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle expressed disappointment at the film, though he did praise Norton's performance as Derek, commenting that he "is perfect for the role". LaSalle felt that while the film succeeded in portraying Derek's descent into neo-Nazism, it failed to portray his renouncement of his past beliefs: "We had to watch him think his way in. We should see him think his way out." LaSalle also noted other problems: "In some places the dialogue is surprisingly stilted. Far worse, the ending is a misfire."[14]Stephen Hunter, writing for The Washington Post, was highly critical of the film and gave it a negative review. He called it "a mousy little nothing of a picture, an old melodramatic formula hidden under pretentious TV-commercial-slick photography, postmodernist narrative stylings and violations of various laws of probability."[15]

Awards and honors[edit]

Norton was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Derek Vinyard, but lost to Roberto Benigni for Life is Beautiful.

Norton's performance was ranked by Total Film as the 72nd greatest film performance of all time.[16] Norton's Academy Award loss was also included on Empire list of "22 Incredibly Shocking Oscars Injustices".[17]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Home media[edit]

The film was released on VHS by New Line Home Entertainment on August 24, 1999.[29] The film was later released on DVD in both 2002[30] and 2008[31] and on Blu-ray on April 7, 2009.[32]



Further reading

  • Frauley, Jon (2010). "Subculture and American History X". Criminology, Deviance, and the Silver Screen: The Fictional Reality and the Criminological Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61516-8. 

External links[edit]

  1. ^ abc"American History X (1998)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  2. ^"Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire Magazine. March 24, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2012. 
  3. ^"American History X Filming Locations". Movie Locations Guide. Retrieved August 28, 2013. 
  4. ^Maurer, Monika (September 1998). "A Quick Chat with Tony Kaye by Monika Maurer". Archived from the original on 2015-03-26. 
  5. ^McCarthy, Todd (October 22, 1998). "American History X". Variety. Archived from the original on July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.  
  6. ^Kaye, Tony (October 25, 2002). "Losing it". The Guardian. Retrieved March 20, 2009. 
  7. ^"Great roles actors have turned down". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  8. ^"American History X". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  9. ^"American History X Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  10. ^Siskel, Gene (October 30, 1998). "A Shocking Film About Racial Hate". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  11. ^McCarthy, Todd (October 22, 1998). "American History X". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  12. ^Maslin, Janet (October 28, 1998). "'American History X': The Darkest Chambers of a Nation's Soul". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  13. ^Ebert, Roger (October 30, 1998). "American History X". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  14. ^LaSalle, Mick (October 30, 1998). "Neo-Nazi With a Conscience / Norton shines, but `History' disappoints". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  15. ^Hunter, Stephen (October 30, 1998). "'American History X'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  16. ^Total Film (December 11, 2008). "150 Greatest Movie Performances of All Time". Total Film. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  17. ^De Semlyen, Phil (February 27, 2014). "22 Incredibly Shocking Oscars Injustices". Empire. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  18. ^"71st Academy Awards Winners". Academy Awards. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  19. ^Tribune staff (January 19, 1999). "Chicago Film Critics Name Their Favorites". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  20. ^J. Olson, Eric (February 22, 1999). "Sound editors shout Golden Reel noms". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  21. ^"1999 Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on February 11, 2001. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  22. ^"1998 Awards (2nd Annual)". Online Film Critics Society. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  23. ^"Previous Award Winners". Political Film Society. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  24. ^J. Olson, Eric (March 8, 1999). "Out of this world". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  25. ^"1998 SEFCA Best Films of the Year". Southeastern Film Critics Association. Archived from the original on June 13, 2004. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  26. ^Rooney, David (August 3, 1999). "U.S. pix help revive Italy's Taormina fest". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  27. ^"20th Annual Awards". Young Artist Award. Archived from the original on November 28, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  28. ^"AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers Nominees"(PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-13. 
  29. ^"American History X [VHS]". Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  30. ^Joshua Klein (4 April 2002). "American History X". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  31. ^"American History X". Retrieved 10 February 2017. 
  32. ^"American History X Blu-ray". Retrieved 10 February 2017.