|Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA)|
India + Cleanliness
एक कदम स्वच्छता की ओरOne step towards cleanliness
|Prime Minister(s)||Narendra Modi|
|Launched||Raj ghat, 2 October 2014; 3 years ago (2014-10-02)|
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) (or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission in English) is a campaign in India that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India's cities, smaller towns, and rural areas. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use. Run by the Government of India, the mission aims to achieve an Open-Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$30 billion). The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG 6).
The campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is India's largest cleanliness drive to date with 3 million government employees, school students, and college students from all parts of India participating in 4,041 statutory cities, towns and associated rural areas.
The mission contains two sub-missions: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ("Gramin" or rural), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
The mission includes ambassadors and activities such as national real-time monitoring and updates from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as The Ugly Indian, Waste Warriors and SWaCH Pune (Solid Waste Collection and Handling) that are working towards its ideas of Swachh Bharat.
Further information: Sanitation in India
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign, launched on 2 October 2014, aims to eradicate open defecation by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakhcrore (US$30 billion). The national campaign spans 4,041 statutory cities and towns. conceived in March 2014 at a sanitation conference organised by UNICEF India and the Indian Institute of Technology as part of the larger Total Sanitation Campaign, which the Indian government launched in 1999.
Previous sanitation campaigns
On 1 April 1999, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which was later (on 1 April 2012) renamed "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" by then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. A limited randomized study of eighty villages in rural (Madhya Pradesh) showed that the TSC programme did modestly increase the number of households with latrines, and had a small effect in reducing open defecation. However, there was no improvement in the health of children."
The earlier "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" rural sanitation program was hampered by the unrealistic approach. Consequently, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was restructured by Cabinet approval on 24 September 2014 as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is expected to cost over ₹620 billion (US$9.5 billion). The government provides an incentive of ₹15,000 (US$230) for each toilet constructed by a BPL family. An amount of ₹90 billion (US$1.4 billion) was allocated for the mission in the 2016 Union budget of India.International Monetary Fund provided a US$1.5 billion loan and $25 million in technical assistance in 2016 for the Swachh Bharat Mission to support India's universal sanitation initiation. The programme has also received funds and technical support from the World Bank, corporations as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives, and by state governments under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.
The Government appointed PWD with the responsibility to dispose off waste from Government offices. The Ministry of Railways planned to have the facility of cleaning on demand, clean bed-rolls from automatic laundries, bio-toilets, dustbins in all non-AC coaches. The Centre will use its Digital India project in conjunction with the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to have solar-powered trash cans, which send alerts to sanitation crew once they are full. The Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya campaign was launched by Smriti Irani, of the Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India by participating in the cleanliness drive along with the school's teachers and students.
Selected public figures
Prime Minister Modi selected following public figures to propagate this campaign. They are:
Anushka Sharma and the Vice President of India M V Naidu picked up a broom to help clean the cyclone-hit port city of Visakhapatnam, in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, as part of the cleanliness campaign.
On 2 October 2014, Prime Minister Modi nominated following people as Brand Ambassador:
He also nominated a number of organisations, including the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Eenadu and India Today as well as the dabbawala of Mumbai, who deliver home-made food to lakhs of people in the city.[clarification needed]More than 3 million government employees and school and college students participated in the drive on the occasion.
On 8 November 2014, Prime Minister carried the message to Uttar Pradesh and nominated another set of nine people for that state.
On 5 January 2015, The minister in-charge nominated followed Telugu icons as brand ambassadors [when?]
From later dates following were made part of the mission
Run and marathons
A Swachh Bharat Run, attended by 1,500 runners, was organized at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on 2 October 2014.
Ongoing real-time monitoring
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app is being used by people and Government organisations for achieving the goals of Swachh Bharat Mission. For this the government of India is bringing awareness to the people through advertisements.
Swachh Sarvekshan annual cleanliness survey
Swachh Sarvekshan, commissioned by Ministry of Urban Development and carried out by Quality Council of India, is an extensive sanitation survey across several hundred cities to check the progress and impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and to foster a spirit of competition among the cities. The performance of each city is evaluated on five parameters:
- Municipal solid waste, sweeping, collection and transportation
- Municipal solid waste, processing and disposal of solid waste
- Open defecation free/toilets
- Capacity building and eLearning
- Provision of public & community toilet seats
- Information, education and communication, and behaviour change
2017 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
Swachh Sarvekshan 2017 was conducted across 500 cities between 4 January 2017 and 7 February 2017. The top 25 cities are:
2016 Swachh Sarvekshan survey
The Swachh Sarvekshan-2016 ranks of 73 cities surveyed are:
Cleanest ten cities:
Ten least clean cities (at the bottom of the list):
By May 2015, 71 Indian public sector undertakings and 14 companies supported the construction of 89,976. Hundreds of thousands of Indian people were still employed as manual scavengers in emptying bucket toilets and pit latrines.
In 2017, the national sanitation coverage rose to 65% from 38.7% on Oct 2, 2014 before the start of the campaign. It was 80% in Feb 2018. Eleven states, 314 districts and 3.25 lakh villages were declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) till 15 February 2018.
The cities and towns which have been declared ODF stood at 22 per cent and the urban wards which have achieved 100 per cent door-to-door solid waste collection stood at 50 per cent. The number of Swachhagrahi volunteers working across urban local bodies rose to 20,000, and those working in rural India rose to more than a lakh. The number of schools with separate toilet facilities for girls rose from 0.4 million (37 per cent) to almost one million (91 per cent).
As per an independent survey released by Quality Council of India in August 2017, overall national rural "household access to toilet" coverage increased to 62.45 per cent and usage of 91.29 per cent, with Haryana topping the national ranking with 99 per cent of households in rural areas covered and usage of 100 per cent.
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Monthly Magazine on Cleaning and Hygiene Technology: Clean India Journal
Media related to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan at Wikimedia Commons
Towards a Swachh Bharat
“A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150 birth anniversary in 2019,” said Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Swachh Bharat Mission at Rajpath in New Delhi. On 2nd October 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission was launched throughout length and breadth of the country as a national movement.
While leading the mass movement for cleanliness, the Prime Minister exhorted people to fulfil Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of a clean and hygienic India. Shri Narendra Modi himself initiated the cleanliness drive at Mandir Marg Police Station. Picking up the broom to clean the dirt, making Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a mass movement across the nation, the Prime Minister said people should neither litter, nor let others litter. He gave the mantra of ‘Na gandagi karenge, Na karne denge.’ Shri Narendra Modi also invited nine people to join the cleanliness drive and requested each of them to draw nine more into the initiative.
By inviting people to participate in the drive, the Swachhta Abhiyan has turned into a National Movement. A sense of responsibility has been evoked among the people through the Clean India Movement. With citizens now becoming active participants in cleanliness activities across the nation, the dream of a ‘Clean India’ once seen by Mahatma Gandhi has begun to get a shape.
The Prime Minister has helped spread the message of Swachh Bharat by urging people through his words & action. He carried out a cleanliness drive in Varanasi as well. He wielded a spade near River Ganga at Assi Ghat in Varanasi under the Clean India Mission. He was joined by a large group of local people who cooperated in the Swachhta Abhiyan. Understanding the significance of sanitation, Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has simultaneously addressed the health problems that Indians families have to deal with due to lack of proper toilets in their homes.
People from different sections of the society have come forward and joined this mass movement of cleanliness. From government officials to jawans, bollywood actors to the sportspersons, industrialists to spiritual leaders, all have lined up for the noble work. Millions of people across the country have been day after day joining the cleanliness initiatives of the government departments, NGOs and local community centres to make India clean. Organising frequent cleanliness campaigns to spreading awareness about hygiene through plays and music is also being widely carried out across the nation.
Bollywood celebrities to television actors came forward and actively joined the initiative. Noted personalities like Amitabh Bachchan, Aamir Khan, Kailash Kher, Priyanka Chopra and entire cast and crew of SAB TV show ‘Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah’ lend a hand to Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Numerous sportspersons like Sachin Tendulkar, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal and Mary Kom’s contribution the clean India drive have been commendable.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in his monthly radio address ‘Mann Ki Baat’, has time and again lauded the efforts of individuals and various organizations across the country that have helped make the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan a huge success. The Prime Minister complemented a team of Government officials of Madhya Pradesh’s Harda district for their role towards a cleaner India. PM also praised five students of New Horizon School in Bangalore who developed a mobile based application for buying and selling waste.
Organisations like ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, XLRI Jamshedpur and IIM-Bangalore initiated mass cleanliness drives and spread awareness among the general public.
Shri Narendra Modi has always openly lauded the participation of people via social media. Shri Narendra Modi appreciated the efforts of Temsutula Imsong, Darshika Shah and a group of volunteers for their ‘Mission Prabhughat’ initiative in Varanasi.
The ‘#MyCleanIndia’ was also launched simultaneously as a part of the Swachh Bharat drive to highlight the cleanliness work carried out by citizens across the nation.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has become a ‘Jan Andolan’ receiving tremendous support from the people. Citizens too have turned out in large numbers and pledged for a neat and cleaner India. Taking the broom to sweep the streets, cleaning up the garbage, focussing on sanitation and maintaining a hygienic environment have become a practice after the launch of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. People have started to take part and are helping spread the message of ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness.’
Swachh Bharat Mission in urban areas is focused on building individual toilets, community toilets and solid waste management. In rural areas, the emphasis is on behavioral change intervention including interpersonal communication, strengthening implementation and delivery mechanisms down to the Gram Panchayat level, and giving States flexibility to design delivery mechanisms that take into account local cultures, practices, sensibilities and demands. The incentive for building toilet has been increased by Rs 2000 from Rs 10000 to Rs 12000. Funds are also provided for Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) in Gram Panchayats.