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Police Essay In Marathi

For the 1959 TV series, see Police Station.

A police station (sometimes called a "station house" in the US) is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff. These buildings often contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms. In many countries, the commander of a police station is called a commissary.

Facilities[edit]

Large departments may have many stations to cover the area they serve. The names used for these facilities include:

Multiple informal names exist, such as "cophouse".

The area a police station may serve has a variety of different names, such as precinct, district, division and zone. However, in some police forces such as Hampshire Constabulary, police officers who are based at one police station have great flexibility over where they can work.

Typical facilities at police stations include:

  • Office space where senior officers, detectives and administrative staff can work.
  • Cells for detainees. In the UK, the area with cells is known as a custody suite.
  • Interview rooms, for both detainees and non-detained visitors.
  • Property rooms for storing evidence and seized property.
  • Lockers and storerooms for storing equipment.
  • A reception desk for public visitors.

Specialized stations exist in a number of countries. An example includes women's police stations in Latin America.

India[edit]

A police station in India is typically under the command of an Inspector. In the case of a police station which is the headquarters of a Police Circle, the Inspector's office is clearly demarcated (and most likely in a separate building).In police station SHO(station house officer) is in charge.An urban police station probably have a Inspector ranked officer will have the charge of sho.w ile in rural station SI will be in charge of station.Other than sho the police station have Adl si,GD,Writers, station guards,women desk,driver constable and duty staffs.

United Kingdom[edit]

The county Constabularies in Great Britain were previously organised on a village basis. Most villages of any size had a "police house". Police houses in small villages were often staffed by a single uniformed Constable, with larger stations being staffed by more. Local police stations were grouped together under the command of a uniformed Sergeant, whose station was known as a "sergeant's station". Larger towns in the county constabulary areas had police stations staffed by a number of officers, often under the command of an inspector or superintendent, usually also commanding a sub-division or division respectively, and therefore giving the names of "sub-divisional station" or "divisional station" to their stations.

In Scotland a Police Station may be referred to as a Police Office.[citation needed]

The Republic Of Ireland[edit]

In the Irish Republic before the mid 1980's, many small towns and villages had small Garda Barracks, these were "Sub-District" Stations usually under the command of a Sergeant. Before the 1980's some of these barracks housed Gardaí, or Gardaí would have to live close to their barracks. This no longer happens, and many of these rural stations are either permanently closed or are only open part-time. These small stations together formed an entire district. The Garda District H.Q's were and remain located in the largest town in the district, usually under command of a superintendent. These District H.Q Barracks normally house Garda Reserves, Rank and File Gardaí, several Sergeants, approximately 1-2 inspectors, under the command of a Superintendent. These Districts, then form part of a Division. A Division normally covers the entire area of a county, there may be one or more counties within a division. The Division is named after the county for which it is located. The Divisional H.Q's are located in the largest town or city within that Division. These Barracks may have hundreds of Reserve Gardaí, Rank and File Gardaí, Sergeants, Inspectors, Superintendent, under the Command of a Chief Superintendent. The Garda H.Q in the Phoenix Park is under the command of the Garda Commissioner, with the support of the Deputy and Assistant Commissioners.

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Red sign outside a Swedish police station
Mumbai Police
Abbreviationमु.पो.

Logo of the Mumbai Police

Motto" सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय(Sadrakshanay Khalanigrahanay)
"sadrakṣaṇāya khalanigrahaṇāya"
(Sanskrit:"To protect the good and to destroy the evil")
Agency overview
Formed1661/1669[citation needed]
Legal personalityGovernmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdiction*City of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Mumbai Police jurisdictional area
Size603.4 km² (233 sq mi)
Population13,662,885
Governing body[[Department of Home, Government of Maharashtra]]
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersThe Office of Commissioner of Police
Elected officer responsibleDevendra Fadnavis (Chief Minister)
Agency executiveDattatray Padsalgikar, IPS, Commissioner
Parent agencyMaharashtra Police
Facilities
Stations94 (Police Stations), 102 (Traffic Police outlets)
Patrol cars3500
Boats32 of Mumbai Police and 60 of Mumbai coast guard
Helicopters5
Dogs~52
Website
Official Website
Footnotes
* Divisional agency: Division of the country, over which the agency has usual operational jurisdiction.

The Mumbai Police (also known as Brihanmumbai Police) is the police force of the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a part of Maharashtra Police and has the primary responsibilities of law enforcement and investigation within the limits of Mumbai. The force's motto is "Sadrakṣaṇāya Khalanigrahaṇāya" (Sanskrit: सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय, "To protect the good and to destroy the evil").[1]

It is headed by the Commissioner of Mumbai Police assisted is an IPS officer in the rank of Additional Director General, and each district headed is headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police in the rank of Superintendent of Police (excluding jails headed by Inspector Generals) and each stations headed by a senior inspector or "station officer ".

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

During the 17th century (until 1655), the area of present-day Mumbai was under Portuguese control. The Portuguese formed a basic law enforcement structure in this area with the establishment of a Police out-post in 1661.[2]

The origins of the present day Mumbai police can be traced back to a militia organised by Gerald Aungier, the then Governor of Mumbai in 1669. This Bhandari Militia was composed of around 500 men and was headquartered at Mahim, Sewree and Sion.[3] In 1672, the judicial overview of police decisions by courts was introduced, although none of the judges had any actual legal training.[4] The situation remained unchanged through the Maratha wars.[5] However, by 1682, policing remained stagnant. There was only one ensign for the whole Bhandari militia, and there were only three sergeants and two corporals.[2]

Creation and early days[edit]

On 29 March 1780, the office of the Lieutenant of Police was dissolved and the office of Deputy of Police was created. James Tod, the then Lieutenant of Police was appointed as the first Deputy of Police on 5 April 1780. He was tried and dismissed for corruption in 1790. Subsequently, the designation was changed to "Deputy of Police and High Constable".[2]

In 1793, Act XXXIII, Geo. III was promulgated. The post of Deputy of Police was abolished and a post of Superintendent of Police was created in its place, with a Deputy of Superintendent of Police assisting him. Mr. Simon Halliday was the first Superintendent of Police, and governed till 1808. During this time, a thorough revision and re-arrangement of policing in the area outside the Fort was carried out. The troublesome area known as "Dungree and the Woods" was split up into 14 Police divisions, each division being staffed by two English constables and a varying number of Peons (not exceeding 130 for the whole area), who were to be stationary in their respective charges and responsible for dealing with all illegal acts committed within their limits.[2]

Post-1857[edit]

After the cementing of English Rule in India after the 1857 war of Indian Independence, in 1864, the three Presidency towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were given Commissioners of Police. On 14 December 1864, Sir Frank Souter was appointed the first Police Commissioner of Bombay. He remained in office for 24 years, till July 3, 1888. During that year (1864), Khan Bahadur Sheikh Ibrahim Sheikh Imam became the first Indian appointed to a police officer's post.[5]

In 1896 the Commissioner's office moved to an Anglo-Gothic revival building, which it still occupies to this day. The Police Headquarters building is a protected heritage site. The Maharashtra Police Headquarters moved into what was known as the Royal Alfred Sailors' Home, in 1896. Construction began on the building in early 1872 and was finished four years later, in 1876. As its name suggests, it was made to accommodate 20 officers and 100 seamen. However, the building was actually conceived to commemorate the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh in 1870. The Duke laid the Foundation stone during his visit.

The Maharashtra government acquired the building in 1928 to house the Bombay Legislative Council. The Police force subsequently moved in after it was vacated.

Post-independence[edit]

After 1947[edit]

After independence, many changes to the Mumbai Police were instituted. On 15 August 1947, J.S. Bharucha became the first Indian head of the Mumbai Police, taking over from the last British Commissioner, Mr. A.E. Caffin.[2]

A dog squad was set up in 1965. Computers were first used by the Mumbai police in 1976. A Narcotics Cell and an anti-terrorist special operations squad were created in 1989. In 1995, the control room was computerised, and finally, in 1997, the Mumbai Police went online.[5]

Modernisation and present day[edit]

A massive modernisation of the Mumbai Police took place in 2005. New vehicles, guns and electronic equipment were procured for police use. The Tourist Squad was also created to patrol the beaches of Mumbai. On 30 May 2009 the Maharashtra government in Mumbai set up a police station dedicated to tackling cyber crime. It is the third such facility in India after Bangalore and Hyderabad. The dedicated police station will now register first information reports (FIRs) on its own and investigate offences pertaining to cyberspace. It is not clear how people abroad may report to Mumbai Cybercell. The police station will take care of all cyber cases in the city including that of terror e-mails. The existing Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of the city police probes cyber offences, but the FIRs are registered in local police stations depending on the site of the offence. A specially trained team of over 25 policemen, headed by an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP), were selected for the new job. The facility will function under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Preventive) and Joint Commissioner of Police (Crime).[6]

Organisation[edit]

The Mumbai Police Force is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state home department through Maharashtra Police. The City is divided into Twelve police zones and Twenty Five traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police.[7]

Geographical division[edit]

Mumbai police is broadly divided into five regions namely Central, North, South, East and West. For administrative purposes, each region is subdivided into 3 to 4 zones.[8] Each zone contains 3 to 4 police stations. Each zone is commanded by a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). Apart from the 12 zones, there is also an additional Port zone. Police stations under the Port zone keep vigil on the Mumbai Port and container terminals in Mumbai. There are a total of 91 police stations in the jurisdiction of Mumbai Police. Every police station has a Police Inspector who is the in-charge officer of the station.

Hierarchy[edit]

Main article: Police ranks and insignia of India

Recruitment[edit]

Those who join the police force through the constabulary exam enter the force at the lowest ranks of the force. Their starting rank is that of a Police constable. Those who join the Police force through the state examination (Maharashtra State Public Service Commission) holds a starting rank of Deputy Superintendents of Police. Officers who join the police force through the civil service examination (UPSC) also known as the IPS exam holds a starting rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police. Generally the IPS officers make it to the highest rank of Director General. The Commissioner of Police of Mumbai, an IPS officer is one of the rank of Additional Director General of Police.

Subunits[edit]

Mumbai Police is divided into the following units:

  • Local Police
  • Special Unit Service
  • Crime Branch
  • Cyber Cell
  • Commando Force
  • Detection Unit (Mumbai Encounter Squad)
  • Anti Terrorist Squad
  • Traffic Police
  • Administration
  • Social Service Cell
  • Narcotics Cell
  • Wireless Cell
  • Local Armed Police
  • Anti-Extortion Cell
  • Modus Operandi Bureau
  • Missing Persons Bureau
  • Special Branch
  • Intelligence Unit
  • Protection & Security
  • Riot Control Police
  • Economic Offenses Wing
  • Juvenile AID Protection Unit
  • Quick Response Team
  • Force One

Each of these units have a Chief of the rank of Joint Commissioner of Police.

High-profile cases[edit]

26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks[edit]

Main article: 26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks

Anti-Terrorism Squad Chief Hemant Karkare, Additional Commissioner of Police Ashok Kamte and Encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar were among the policemen who fell to the bullets of the Pakistan-sponsored terrorists. Then Joint Commissioner of Mumbai Crime Branch Mr. Rakesh Maria under the leadership of Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor tackled the abrupt attack by his superb skills. Mr. Ramesh Mahale; then an officer with crime branch investigated the case and brought the lone arrested militant Ajmal Kasab to justice. Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor was shunted out of his office.[10] Mahale resigned recently over a murder case investigation which he was leading.[11] In the following year, as a response to these attacks, a specialised counter-terrorism unit, Force One was formed and commissioned on November 24, 2009, two days before the anniversary of the 26/11 terror attacks. A Committee was appointed to look into the failures of cops pertaining to the terror attack. The Ram Pradhan Committee as it came to be known' furnished a report recommending a series of improvements & reforms. The State Government of Maharashtra however never had this report tabled in the legislature fearing a fallout over strictures passed in the report. A Public Interest Litigation has been filed by social activist Ketan Tirodkar to demand equal justice for all the police who were killed in the terror attack; especially for the members of the Bomb Disposal Squad of Mumbai Police. During the hearing of the petition; the Government informed the High Court that the Federal Government of India has rejected the proposal to award the Bomb Disposal Squad of the city police for their contribution in defusing granades in the terror attack.

Sheena Bora murder case[edit]

Main article: Sheena Bora murder case

Sheena Bora, an executive working for Metro One based in Mumbai, went missing on April 24, 2012. In August 2015, the Mumbai Police had received a tip-off from an unknown man claiming that Sheena Bora had been murdered.After they got in touch with their Counterparts in Pune, they arrested her mother, Indrani Mukerjea, her stepfather Sanjeev Khanna, and her mother's chauffeur, Shyamvar Pinturam Rai, for allegedly abducting and killing her and subsequently burning her corpse. They also arrested Indrani's husband, Peter Mukerjea in connection with the case. Rai has now been allowed to turn approver in the case after he was pardoned by the Bandra Magistrate Court in Mumbai. As of May 2017, Indrani, Peter, and Sanjeev have been lodged in Byculla women's Jail and Arthur Road Jail in Mumbai, respectively.

Equipment[edit]

Much of the equipment for the Mumbai Police are manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Weapons such as Glock Pistols are imported from Austria. These pistols were first imported for the Anti-terrorist Squad in Mumbai when the same was formed in 2004.

Weapons[edit]

RiflesSMLE Mk III*, Ishapore 2A1, SUB Machine GUN CARBINE 9 mm 1A1, 7.62 MM 1A1, Assault Rifle 7.62 mm, 38 MM Multi Shot Riot Gun, INSAS 5.56 mm, AK-47(247 in total),[12]FN-FAL

250 MP5 German automatic sub-machine guns have just been ordered.,[13] M4, M107 anti-material rifle and SWAT equipment.

PistolsGlock pistol, Pistol Auto 9mm 1A, Smith & Wesson M&P.

Detail List of Mumbai police's Vehicles[edit]

C.P.Pool Mumbai Vehicle Fleet[14]
Vehicle CategoryTotal Vehicle Fleet
Special Purpose Vehicle50
Transportation Vehicles ( Squad cars )210
Patrol Vehicles280
Station Vehicles960
Response Vehicles160
Motor Cycles1405
Police Helicopters5
Total3070


72 speed boats have been also ordered.[15]

Uniform[edit]

Peaked caps are worn with an orange band and crown that is less stiff such it drops downwards. Khaki short sleeve shirt and long pants are worn by most members.

Mumbai police in popular culture[edit]

Because Bollywood, India's Hindi language film industry, is primarily based in Mumbai, the Mumbai police has been frequently portrayed in films. Some of the prominent ones are listed below:

Most of these films are based on the operational groups most commonly known as Encounter Squads. Officers like Pradeep Sharma, Vijay Salaskar, Praful Bhosale, Ravindra Angre have headed these squads. They are also known as demolition men. Junior officers Hemant Desai, Ashok Khot, Sachin Waze, ||Daya Nayak, Uttam Bhosale & likes have assisted them.

Honours[edit]

The Ashok Chakra, India's highest civilian honour during peace time, was conferred posthumously upon two Mumbai Police officers - Hemant Karkare and Ashok Kamte who laid their lives in the service of the nation during the 2008 Mumbai attacks. Junior officer Vijay Salaskar was also posthumously awarded the Ashok Chakra.

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Kadam, B. S. Sri; Socio-Historical Study Of Police Administration in Bombay Presidency (1861 to 1947); Kolhapur 1993 (Diss. Shivaji University)
  • Kennedy, M. Notes On Criminal Classes in the Bombay Presidency Appendices regarding some Foreign Criminals who occasionally visit the Presidency: Including Hints on the Detection of Counterfeit Coin; Bombay 1908
  • Edwardes, Stephen M. (Commissioner of Police); The Bombay City Police: A Historical Sketch, 1672–1916; Bombay u.a. 1923
  • Edwardes, Stephen M.; Crime in India: Brief Review of the more Important Offences included in the Annual Criminal Returns with Chapters on Prostitution & Miscellaneous Matters; Oxford u.a. 1924
  • Statistiken: gedruckt im: Annual Report of Police for the Town and Island of Bombay, laufende Monatsstatistiken auf Mumbai Police

References[edit]

External links[edit]

A Mumbai Policeman during the 19th century
Mumbai Police Headquarters in a heritage Gothic-style building.
Assistant Police Inspector